Bariatric surgery is a type of weight loss surgery that is performed on overweight or obese individuals who do not respond to diet and exercise. The goal of the surgery is to help the patient achieve significant and sustainable weight loss, as well as improve their overall health and quality of life.
There are several methods of bariatric surgery, each with its own unique benefits and risks. The most common methods include:
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: This is the most commonly performed bariatric surgery and involves creating a small pouch in the upper part of the stomach and rerouting the small intestine into this pouch. This limits the amount of food that can be eaten at one time and reduces the absorption of calories.
Sleeve gastrectomy: This procedure involves removing a large portion of the stomach, leaving a smaller, tube-like stomach. This reduces the amount of food that can be eaten and also helps produce less of the hormone that stimulates hunger.
Adjustable gastric band: This procedure involves placing an adjustable band around the upper part of the stomach, creating a small pouch and a narrow opening to the rest of the stomach. This limits the amount of food that can be eaten and slows the rate at which food moves through the stomach.
Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch: This is a complex procedure that involves removing a large portion of the stomach and rerouting the small intestine to the rest of the stomach. This limits the amount of food that can be eaten and also reduces the absorption of calories.
Eligible for bariatric surgery are usually individuals with a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher or a BMI of 35 or higher with a serious obesity-related health condition, such as type 2 diabetes or sleep apnea. The ideal candidate for bariatric surgery is someone who is committed to making permanent lifestyle changes, including eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly.
BMI, or body mass index, is a simple calculation used to determine whether a person is underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese. To calculate your BMI, you will need to know your height and weight.
The formula for calculating BMI is as follows:
BMI = weight (kg) ÷ height (m)^2
Here's how you can calculate your BMI:
For example, if you are 1.63 m tall and weigh 72.7:
Calculate your BMI: 72.7 ÷ (1.63)^2 = 27.3
BMI categories are as follows:
Underweight: under 18.5
Normal weight: 18.5 to 24.9
Overweight: 25 to 29.9
Obesity: 30 or more
It is important to note that the BMI calculation is not perfect and does not consider differences in muscle mass, body fat percentage and other factors that can affect a person's overall health. For example, athletes and highly muscular individuals may have a high BMI even though they are not overweight or obese. In these cases, other measurements of body composition, such as skinfold thickness measurements or bioelectrical impedance analysis, may be more accurate.
The results of bariatric surgery can be significant and long-lasting, but the success of the surgery depends on the patient's commitment to making permanent lifestyle changes. On average, patients can expect to lose between 50 and 70 percent of their excess weight in the first two years after surgery. In addition, many patients experience improvements in their overall health, including a reduction in symptoms of obesity-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes and sleep apnea.
In conclusion, bariatric surgery can be a safe and effective way for people who are severely overweight or obese to achieve significant weight loss and improve their overall health. However, it is important that patients carefully weigh the benefits and risks of the procedure, as well as their commitment to making permanent lifestyle changes, before deciding to undergo surgery.
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