Oncological treatments

Minimally invasive treatments in oncology

Minimally invasive treatments in oncology

Interventional radiology is one of the most commonly used areas in the treatment of cancer, in addition to being used in the diagnosis and staging of cancer. Along with technological advances, the place of intervention methods in the treatment of cancer is becoming increasingly important with each passing year. The most significant advantages of these methods are the following: they can be performed painlessly through a needle hole with local anesthesia, their effect in killing a tumor is high, they can be used together with other treatments and patients can return to their normal life shortly after treatment. Interventional methods of cancer treatment can be studied in 2 groups and these are percutaneous ablations and arterial treatments.
This is the direct destruction of the tumor with special needles placed in it. The most commonly used ablation methods are cryoablation, NanoKnife and radiofrequency.
Recently, diagnostic and treatment methods, which play an important role in the fight against cancer, have given priority to the comfort of patients with technological advances. With cryoablation, ie. the technique of freezing tumors by needle, one of the most important innovations in this field in the world and which is known as the “ice ball”, harmful tissues or tumors in the body are destroyed by freezing, which is directed directly to the cancer cell with precise accuracy .

It is also used at very large tables
In the procedure performed by placing special needles in the body, tissue or tumor in the body is destroyed by freezing. First, an appropriate number of needles are placed on the table thanks to the information obtained from imaging methods, such as CT or MRI scans. While one needle mass is sufficient for a 1 cm diameter mass, the number of needles increases with increasing tumor diameter. In current cryoablation devices, 20-25 needles can be inserted into the body. They can work simultaneously and therefore significantly large masses can be destroyed by applying strong cooling.

Cooling to -80 degrees can be applied to the tumor
In the cryoablation technique, argon gas circulates through the needles and this causes a decrease in temperature, which varies between -20 and -80 degrees at the tip of the needle. This cooling kills the tumor or pathological tissue, destroying it. The clinics with which qTherapy.eu cooperates most often use ablation methods, which are usually similar to each other, such as radiofrequency, microwave and laser. However, cryoablation is a technique that works with a completely different mechanism and has specific properties and advantages. Because cryoablation and other ablation methods only destroy the tumor with point-based shots and do not cause tissue damage, they can be repeated many times.

A high degree of success can be achieved with most dangerous cancers
Cryoablation can be used successfully in common and high-risk cancers, such as tumors of the prostate, kidney, lung, liver and soft tissue. Although in some cases it is used as a stand-alone procedure, it is a method that can be used simultaneously with chemotherapy and radiation therapy in other cases, which are at the discretion of the treating specialist. However, there are cases in which cryoablation cannot be used. Because the freezing procedure damages nerve tissue, it is either not used in the brain, spine, or regions where there are important nerve endings, or it is applied by protecting the nerve tissue with special techniques. It cannot be used in gastric, intestinal or gallbladder and should be used with caution in tumors near these organs. In such cases, the entry is made through a needle under ultrasound or CT direction and between these structures and the tumor is given gas or fluid to move critical organs and so the procedure can be performed safely.

The procedure takes an average of 30 minutes
In the cryoablation procedure, the cancerous tumor is transformed into an ice ball. When this ice ball melts, the cancerous tumor disappears. This procedure takes an average of 30 minutes. Local anesthesia is sufficient for cryoablation, which is a painless method. The patient is discharged the same day after the procedure. While in other methods it is not possible to understand which part of the tumor was destroyed during ablation, in this method the ultrasound examination shows an image as an ice mass. The whole area inside the ice mass, starting at 0.5 cm, is called the fatal area. The most important advantage of cryoablation is that you can know exactly what part of the tumor is destroyed during this procedure.

The most commonly used method in cancer interventions is a tumor burn procedure used to treat tumors arising in the tissues of the liver, lungs, soft tissues and bones. The entry is made in the middle of the tumor with a needle over the organ with the tumor and the cancerous tumors are burned. One of the most commonly used methods is radio frequency. Radiofrequency ablation is most commonly used in tumors of the liver, lungs, kidneys, and thyroid gland.
As with radiofrequency, this is a method that kills tumors by burning, but it has recently become a more commonly preferred method than radiofrequency. It is applied mainly on the liver.
In this method, with the help of diagnostic systems, special needles are inserted into the tumor and short-term but very high electric currents are applied under general anesthesia. In this way, wide holes open in the cell walls of the cancer cell and the cancer cells die until the healthy cells are damaged. The most important feature of this procedure is that critical structures such as vessels, nerve tissue and gastrointestinal tissues are not damaged much during the ablation procedure. Thus, the NanoKnife method is particularly preferred in tumors adjacent to such critical organs and structures. With such characteristics, NanoKnife is promising in biliary tract tumors in tumors of the liver and adjacent major arteries and in pancreatic and prostate cancer.

Intraarterial chemotherapy, which is administered to patients who do not benefit from chemotherapy, is performed by detecting the vessels that supply the tumor with angiography and by introducing interventional and intensive chemotherapy into the vessel. The most important advantage of the procedure for the patient is that there are few side effects, while the effect of the drug on the tumor is high.

This is especially true for liver cancer, with no chance of surgery. Therefore, small particles impregnated with a chemotherapy drug or some contrast agents mixed with chemotherapy are injected into the arteries that feed the tumors in the liver. In this way, both vessels of the cancer cells are blocked and the loaded drug is given directly to the tumor for 1-2 weeks. In homeoembolization, normal liver cells are very little affected, and in this treatment, the cancer tissue is severely affected.

In radioembolization, very small obstructive particles, which are about one-tenth of a millimeter, are loaded with radioactive material and injected directly into the artery of the liver or into the vessel that feeds the tumor. Thus, a very high dose of radiation therapy is given to the tumors and healthy tissues are very weakly affected. The procedure is practiced in both liver and kidney tumors.

This method is used only in liver tumors, by applying a very intensive amount of chemotherapy directly into the cancer cell. During this procedure, the artery and vein of the liver are isolated so as to prevent a large amount of chemotherapeutic drug from entering the bloodstream and causing toxic effects to the patient. The procedure is performed periodically, once a month.

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