Bone marrow transplantation or Stem cell transplantation
Stem cells are the cells that are responsible for the production of blood in the human body. Transplantation of these cells, which have deep special functions, is commonly referred to as ‘bone marrow transplantation’ or ‘stem cell transplantation’. Bone marrow transplantation is called “autologous transplantation” – when it is performed on the patient’s own stem cells and “allogeneic transplantation” – when it is performed by cells taken from relatives or unrelated donors that have tissue compatibility. The blood stem cell is transplanted during a bone marrow transplant.
In the past, stem cells were used directly from the bone marrow through special needles under special operating room conditions. However, this method is rarely used today. In recent years, stem cells have been transferred from the bone marrow to the blood through a special drug, and the cells are collected by a method called apheresis. This method does not require surgery. Bone marrow transplantation also does not require a surgical procedure. The brain is transplanted into the patient through vascular access, the bone marrow cells find the bone marrow themselves through their biological characteristics and start producing blood. The main challenge in bone marrow transplantation is to follow the patient until the brain acquires functioning functions in its new place. Red and white blood cells and platelets, which are responsible for coagulation, cannot be produced during this critical period. Therefore, this is a period in which complications such as anemia, infection and bleeding may develop. It is crucial to prevent bone marrow rejection or diseases caused by the new one by treating the side effects such as infections and bleeding that may develop during this period.
Success in bone marrow transplantation is achieved when good technical infrastructure, good microbial isolation, interdisciplinary medical exchange of information, cooperation and experience in the medical team and when hospital wards provide the necessary intervention in organ transplantation and carry out constant control and monitoring. in order to prevent and protect against possible accompanying complications.